Everything you write must be stated in your own words. Thus, direct quotes are not allowed. If you use support from the literature to answer your questions, you must cite your sources (properly). Personal web pages or organizational web pages are not considered valid sources of information. All answers are limited to one page, each, that is single-spaced, has size 12 type and one inch margins all around. Your goal is to be complete and concise. You are encouraged to contact me with questions if something is not clear. All work must be done individually at all times. This exam covers all material relating to plant function and earlier. Each question is worth 10 points (except the extra credit).Undergraduate and Graduate Students:1. a. Describe (in words) in detail the process of photosynthesis. Make sure you include both the light dependent reactions and the temperature sensitive reactions. b. Compare and contrast C3, C4, and CAM photosynthetic processes.c. What is photorespiration, why is it a problem and under what conditions are C3 plants favored and under what conditions are C4 plants favored and why?2. a. Describe (in words) the process of cellular respiration in detail. Make sure you include glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.b. What happens when oxygen is not available to a plant cell?c. How do plants differ in their cellular respiration from animal cells? What are the potential consequences?3. a. Explain (in detail) the process of how water is moved up a 300 foot tall tree from the soil to the leaves and out into the air.b. How might water transport and photosynthesis be connected? (hint, you might want to read the Ryan and Yoder paper)c. What are the advantages and disadvantages of vessels vs tracheids?4. a. What are the differences between macro and micro nutrients?b. Why is nitrogen so important for plants?c. Describe the different ways in which plants can get nitrogen.5. a. What are the different ways in which plants can protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens?b. Explain how a plant’s “immune response” works. How is this similar to how our immune system works?c. Compare and contrast constitutive and induced responses in plants.